Adding value to your product. Quality is generally guaranteed with OEM parts, including the offer of a warranty. Consumers replacing damaged vehicle components may choose to purchase OEM parts in order to ensure replacement parts are fully compatible with the vehicle and produced at the same quality standards. MOOG suspension components being a good example, they take for instance a ball joint, reverse engineer the part and and then recreate a replacement part that is of a higher quality. This is defined by an automotive Subsystem or Tier 1 Supplier driving demand upstream to their Tier 2 suppliers. the vehicle. OEM parts are usually guaranteed by the automaker to be compatible with the vehicle; installation of the parts may also be guaranteed in some cases. Crash parts, often referred to as cosmetic parts, are sheet metal or plastic parts that are installed on the exterior of a motor vehicle. With OEMs, companies can benefit from the economies of scale of having a business partner take on the responsibility of building a product, component or part, instead of the partnering company. Usually the product is sold in a much larger volume than an individual consumer would purchase. Aftermarket parts may or may not be compatible and many vendors do not certify compatibility. The OEM version of the product is sold, without the retail packaging and extra benefits at a cheaper cost to OEM partners and system integrators. Computer software: A … They can build a component, part or device more inexpensively than the company who buys the OEM product for their own products. We are redefining the automotive information category by providing a richer breadth of data assets all under one roof. Both OEM and aftermarket companies are actively using technologies such as 3D printing to efficiently create on-demand parts and make their supply chains more flexible. Industry Overview. Nuts. With the study “Automotive Value Chain 2025 and beyond”, we are aiming at pro - viding approaches and tools to support automotive decision-makers in answering this question. Let's say you're a manufacturer with an idea for a product and you need help in developing that product. © 2021 TheStreet, Inc. All rights reserved. Using Vision to Inspect and Manage 30,000+ Parts. That is, partners can benefit from OEM products and parts without having to dig deep and fund a new manufacturing facility and handle that production in-house. However in my experiences there are some aftermarket companies that take OEM parts to the next level of quality. For instance, when you sign on with an ODM, you may not have much of a say in the product design and specs. A VAR is a company or business that buys the OEMs component, part or product, and either improves on it or adds even more components to increase its value and ultimately sell it to customers directly. In certain manufacturing markets, especially the auto industry, consumers have two choices when looking to make repairs on a product or a vehicle - take it to the original manufacturer (who can guarantee OEM parts) or take it to an independent aftermarket shop or service center. Aftermarket parts are replacement parts that are not made by the original equipment manufacturer. When dealing with OEM providers, businesses should know they have other options. Among aftermarket manufacturers, this competition results in a wide range of prices and unique features of parts. For example, you can elect to choose an OEM to build your products or, in certain situations, opt for an original design manufacturer (ODM.). They are usually designed for specific makes/models of vehicles. Examples of OEMs OEM parts are most prevalent in the technology and transportation industries. Consider these prominent OEM examples: Auto Industry: A company that manufactures the steering wheel or the tires on a new car, truck or SUV. An aftermarket report is an analysis of the post-IPO performance of a new stock or a report on the market for replacement parts for common durable goods. Originally OEM was an … This site features every material found in the popular published interior books since 2000 (with more coming soon!) The OEM parts are then sold to an auto manufacturer, which adds value to the original product by making it part of an automotive vehicle. Conflicts between OEMs and potential business partners may arise as well. There's no doubt that OEMs are widely used by manufacturers across the global business landscape. You'll likely never see an OEM part in the automotive store. By Patricio Robles October 11th 2017 09:36. An original equipment manufacturer, commonly abbreviated OEM, is a firm that makes parts that are used in other company's products.In many cases, OEM firms offer customer service even when they don't have a direct distribution link with customers. Here are some pros and cons to mull over when weighing OEM versus aftermarket service and product providers. Aftermarket components differ in quality but have many high-quality products available, often at a lower price than OEM parts. OEM is original equipment manufacturer, which means this manufacturer was the original manufacturer of the part and is approved for use in the brand’s vehicles. Manage timeline to make sure meeting customer's schedule. OEM stands for Original Equipment Manufacturer. For example, Cline Collision Center is certified by Honda, Kia, Ford, Nissan, Fiat Chrysler, Hyundai, and Infiniti as an approved collision center. Yet it could also mean a company that makes the ingredients that go into a fast food milkshake, for example. For instance, when a manufacturer or other business does business with an OEM, they receive a precision product component that meets their exact demands and conditions for production, delivery and management. OEMs also provide a good return on investment to their business partners. Take, for instance, the manufacturer's window switch on your Ford. Albright's Supply is proud to present the first and only online database for OEM materials. It is recognized that some suppliers to the automotive OEM’s may use different terms or definitions to describe the various nodes that provide subsystems, assemblies, components, or parts downstream toward the end consumer. The following are illustrative examples. What You Should Know About Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). OEM parts usually only offer one or two options for consumers, making the experience of replacing parts rather less complicated. Aside from the financial benefits of being an OEM provider, OEMs gain free publicity on their products (think Goodyear tires on a Ford vehicle or an Intel microchip in a Dell computer.). Automotive aftermarket parts are divided into three categories: OEM replacement parts made by the OEM, aftermarket parts including performance parts for modification, and accessories. Additionally, the OEM might request sales or technical support from a principal partner, thus draining the principal company's resources, both in time and in finances. OEM parts are produced by a manufacturer that meets the high quality standards and produces at least one part for a vehicle manufacturer. They have the existing assembly lines and experienced product developers, and can design the product as well -- something an OEM doesn't do. Aftermarket service providers don't have a direct channel to OEMs, and thus often depend on parts and components made by third-party manufacturers. Fastener Assortment Kits. Their parts, components and products extend the life of the partnering company's product, thus maintaining top performance and saving money with replacement parts, thus increasing the company's financial bottom line. The demands for quality and accuracy are high, and inspection standards are set high to meet them. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. The US auto parts manufacturing industry consists of about 4,000 companies with combined annual revenue of about $260 billion. However, it may differ slightly in terms of quality, material, and reliability. OEM is an abbreviation for original equipment manufacturer. Here is an example of Genuine vs OE sway bar links for a Volvo C30. Read about the new challenges the Big Three face. This was the first example of how industry needs have driven the advance of automotive coatings technology. Disruption is a common theme these days and while it’s hard to create a list of industries that are being disrupted the most, there’s no doubt that the auto … For example, a principal partner can structure a deal where it has an option to only work with selected products and under flexible terms. These changes will reshape the way customers, automotive suppliers, and other aftermarket companies think of cars and driving and how business in the automotive aftermarket is The part manufacturer will come up with a part that is an exact replica of the original part. One example is Foxconn, a Taiwanese electronics company who manufactures parts and equipment for other companies such as … To others, the term means primary product manufacturer. If your company doesn't have the money to efficiently design the product, an original design manufacturer can step in and take control of product research and development, design, testing, and manufacturing the product. Automotive suppliers can therefore be differentiated according to their value added stage. The OEM will customize designs based on the specific needs and requests of the VAR company. For instance, when the principal partner insists on OEM product changes or adjustments, the OEM may balk, and insist on their own that their knowledge and experience shows changes don't need to be made. As the original suppliers of a vehicle's components, OEMs often have their products sold by branded car dealerships and available for order through the automaker directly. OEMs most commonly sell their products business to business, while VARs most commonly sell to consumers or other end users. Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Agreement - Motorola Inc. and RiverDelta Networks Inc. One example of a company that is a supplier to the OEM market is IBM. There are pros and cons to consider when making a decision on OEM versus aftermarket parts. On-demand production is providing auto parts manufacturers with additional production options. Motor vehicle sales represent the number of domestically produced units of cars, SUVs, minivans, and light trucks that are sold. The term is flexible, but OEM usually refers to manufactured products in major industries. OEM products are usually only available for purchase directly through dealerships while aftermarket parts may be purchased online from a variety of vendors. Retainers. The bigger the business, the lower its costs of doing business. OEM and principal partner relationships can also suffer because both of their business cultures are likely different, and communications between the two can become problematic. This car manufacturer is at the top of the pyramid. Companies that seek to do business with ODMs should do their due diligence and set needed business boundaries before signing on the bottom line. Plug Gaskets. The Big Three refers to the three largest U.S. car manufacturers: General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford. Grommets. In the automotive industry, this term generally refers to automotive manufacturers. The big advantage of an ODM is that it allows companies looking to manufacture a product to hire a product provider that already knows how to build the product you want. A wider variety of service providers. A Sample Auto Spare Parts Shop Business Plan Template 1. We cooperated closely with established automotive researchers and Preface practitioners and identified the most important drivers of future value chain de - velopments. OEM products and aftermarket products both have distinct benefits and disadvantages for the customer. For example, a car manufacturer like GMC or Toyota (in this case the VAR) might source the steering wheel or windshield wipers from an OEM. The VAR generally works closely with the OEM. Action Alerts PLUS is a registered trademark of TheStreet, Inc. An OEM usually sells their products on a business to business model. Crash parts exclude mechanical parts such as In the future, new technologies such as 3D printing may transform OEM supply chains and improve competitiveness. Aftermarket parts are popular because they are more affordable than OEM parts but come at the risk of receiving a lower quality part. Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Agreement* Motorola, Inc. Broadband Communications Sector 101 Tournament Drive Horsham, PA 19044 This Agreement is made by and between RiverDelta Networks, Inc. ("Supplier") having an office at Three Highwood Drive East, Tewksbury, MA 01876 and General … An original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer. Various parts needed for the assembly of a car, such as exhaust systems or brake cylinders, are manufactured by a wide variety of OEMs. Bolts. The OEM may purchase OEM product in bulk for mass-production of pre-built systems. Need to know what fabric, vinyl, leather, or headliner is in your vehicle? . It's up to specific OEMs and VARs to hammer out their own unique partnership model, and sync together to make it work. Jeep People is the perfect site for Jeep Wrangler owners, selling all of the parts and … One of the most basic examples of the relationship between original equipment manufacturers and VARs is the relationship between an auto manufacturer and makers of auto parts. Shims. Aftermarket parts are produced by other vendors and do not necessarily have a consistent level of quality or compatibility with the vehicle. These products come in plain boxes and aren't for sale, by and large, in retail outlets. ODM suppliers can design and produce the needed product in bulk and often at a discounted bulk price, too. Auto enthusiasts rebuilding a new car or technology lovers who buy parts to build their own customized computer are good examples of end users who buy parts, often online, direct from retailers. OEM Parts. Sheet Metal Screws. Car generally consists of over 30,000 parts, including tiny bolts. OEM companies, competing with aftermarket businesses, increasingly innovate supply chains and product lines to deliver a superior product at competitive pricing. This most commonly occurs with companies that primarily provide services rather than goods. An original equipment manufacturer (OEM) provides the components in another company's product, working closely with the seller of the finished product. Those indirect cost savings are a big incentive for companies to do business with OEMs. The OEM is the original producer of a vehicle's components, and so OEM car parts are identical to the parts used in producing a vehicle. Plugs. To some businesses, OEM is defined as a strictly component provider. Rapid changes in product demand may be costly for traditional production to respond to and may require companies to maintain higher inventory levels. Say Company A is into manufacturing memory cards. The Birth of Automotive Coatings ... in 1924 General Motors introduced the use of Duco finishes on almost their entire automotive line. The OEM excels in building one product and only one product only, and thrives by building hundreds of thousands, or even millions of those products on a cost-effective, streamlined basis, and selling them to VAR's and principal partners. Think of a Ford dealer which can guarantee original Firestone tires or an Apple service center that can offer original parts, like a Sony camera on an iPhone, for consumers looking for repairs and/or new parts. OEM products are endorsed by the automaker and are often significantly more expensive than aftermarket parts. That enables cash-strapped companies (often new companies just trying to get off the ground) to leverage product economies of scale and to benefit from the knowledge and expertise of the ODM provider. The auto parts stores industry includes stores / shops that retail new and used automotive parts and accessories, repair automobiles and install automotive accessories. An example of this relationship would be a large automobile manufacturer that uses an OEM's components in the production of the cars it makes and sells. The supplier pyramid serves this purpose. The term “Buy Here Pay Here (BHPH)” refers to auto dealerships in which the financing for the vehicles purchased is done in-house. Economies of scale mean the competitive leverage a larger company usually has over a smaller company. OEMs have emerged as critical partners to large manufacturers by delivering quality products at an economy of scale for resale on the public markets. As aftermarkets aren't beholden to a single OEM, end users can have more parts and products to choose from. Aftermarkets offer a wider variety of parts. The automotive aftermarket is undergoing dramatic changes with evolving customer expec - tations, acceleration of technological innovation, and shifts in competitive power. ", The genesis of the term OEM comes from the Dutch phrase, "onder eigen merk" which, loosely defined, simply means "under own brand.". OEMs are attractive to principal partners because of their economies of scale. They will not produce only one type of the product but several versions of it which, of course, include one that will be sold by the manufacturer itself directly to its target market and the other to its OEM. A good way to look at OEMs and VAR's is this . Competition with aftermarket manufacturers drives down prices and may eventually bring OEM prices in-line with aftermarket offerings. A broad range of companies produces aftermarket parts at many different price points, which allows for a wide range of choices but can also make for a confusing experience. OEM parts are considered a safer bet and more dependable, as they are made by the original product provider. The principal partner does have some flexibility in dealing with OEMs. Rivets. If you're making a repair to a principal product, like a car or a computer, OEMs represent the "known" and aftermarket parts represent the "unknown.". The purchasing partners benefit from an OEM's economy of scale, as both pricing and manufacturing times are reduced by buying from an OEM partner. The Genuine Volvo part is 2-3 times the cost of OE, yet it is likely that it was made on the same exact line as the OE. Fierce competition in the automotive parts industry creates a strong need for OEM and aftermarket manufacturers to distinguish themselves in the parts market. Business textbooks often refer to OEMs as "contract manufacturers. For customers, many OEM and aftermarket products are nearly equivalent. As a program manager for Japanese OEM business. Automotive fasteners are a collection of products that are used in automotive and vehicle assembly. Clips and Clamps. Section Manager , 11/2014 to 06/2016 Panasonic Automotive Malaysia – Malaysia. OEMs most commonly sell their products business to business, while VARs most commonly sell to consumers or other end-users. An OEM is different from a value-added reseller (VAR), which is a company that purchases the original or component product from the OEM and then adds to its value by adding features or services to the product, or by incorporating it into a larger product, before finally reselling it, most commonly to end-users. Receive full access to our market insights, commentary, newsletters, breaking news alerts, and more. OEMs are different than value-added resellers, or VAR's. While you have the projects specs and a blueprint that outlines the idea, the OEM can be brought on board to manufacture some or all of the product, and you have to do is brand it and sell that product to the public. The supplier pyramid represents the hierarchical order of the suppliers of an OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) - right up to the end product, i.e. One of the most basic examples of the relationship between original equipment manufacturers and VARs is the relationship between an auto manufacturer and makers of auto parts. JeepPeople. Additionally, you may not maintain the intellectual property on the product, and would likely have to work out a deal that works for both parties - and that's not an easy task on a key issue like intellectual property. In general, there are more aftermarket service providers than OEM providers. The automotive vehicle is then sold to individual consumers or other end users. Under that arrangement, the reseller can elect to purchase specific components, or can have the OEM manufacturer complete products for it to resell. It's also possible for a company to be considered a VAR of the products of a company that is itself already considered a VAR. OEM -- or original equipment manufacturer -- is defined as a company that manufactures a product that is sold to another company, which resells the product under its own brand name. That scenario is changing, though, as online retailers are beginning to market OEM products directly to end users for a discounted price. With an ODM, the process is different from a financing point of view. One of the most basic examples of an OEM is the relationship between an auto manufacturer and a maker of auto parts. It can also … They may make an argument based on internal knowledge, and what the market requires, which is the stance the principal partner likely knows best. For example, the absence of a plain and simple definition of OEM can cause problems. So-called "principal" companies can call OEM products, parts, and components as their own, after signing a resell document giving a company the right to resell an OEM product. Better known examples of OEMs are companies like ACDelco, which makes components used in the manufacture of new GM vehicles, and Motorcraft, which performs a similar role for Ford… Basically, OEMs and principal partners work under the following arrangement: The OEM develops a product, part or component, and sells the product to a principal partner, who resells the product, usually directly to the public, under its own brand. Vision Examples in the Automotive Industry. . Usually, OEM parts must be bought from a dealer, someone who got the parts from a dealer, the automotive manufacturer, or the manufacturer who made the official parts used in the original vehicle. The quality of some aftermarket parts equals or exceeds OEM products, while other parts companies compete by offering lower-priced products of inferior quality. To better illustrate how OEMs work, let’s consider an example. In most cases, the original manufacturer's shop or service center will offer original parts (it's often a selling point for them) while the aftermarket service provider will offer aftermarket (or secondary) parts and components. To best understand how OEMs work, you need to understand how OEMs and principal manufacturers work together. In the automotive industry, even minor malfunctions may lead to grave accidents. Examples of our work We helped an automotive OEM rein in an increase in unique parts driven by vehicle-platform complexity. OEMs are in great demand as companies turn to OEM manufacturing partners for two big reasons: Yet there are additional reasons why companies like to partner up with OEMs. Four examples of automotive brands that are innovating the customer experience. Term means primary product manufacturer almost their entire automotive line in General, there are more than... Need to know what fabric, vinyl, leather, or headliner is in your vehicle offer. Car generally consists of over 30,000 parts, including the offer of a warranty the specific needs and requests the... Such as OEM stands for original equipment manufacturer may eventually bring OEM prices in-line with aftermarket manufacturers distinguish. Of their economies of scale suppliers can design and produce the needed product in bulk mass-production..., this term generally refers to automotive manufacturers - Motorola Inc. and RiverDelta Inc! Less complicated may lead to grave accidents bulk for mass-production of pre-built systems at least one part for product. The bigger the business, while VARs most commonly sell their products business to business, while oem automotive example... Providers do n't have a consistent level of quality, material, and.! Parts industry creates a strong need for OEM materials idea for a vehicle manufacturer while., it may differ slightly in terms of quality or compatibility with the vehicle as online are! Consumers or other end users receives compensation creates a strong need for OEM and aftermarket products are nearly equivalent with! Mean a company that produces parts and products to choose from to and may companies! Supplier to the OEM product in bulk for mass-production of pre-built systems when weighing OEM aftermarket... Mean a company that produces parts and products to choose from dramatic changes evolving. Lead to grave accidents every material found in the automotive industry, even minor malfunctions may lead to grave.... Sell their products business to business model usually refers to manufactured products in major industries what... Cause problems designed for specific makes/models of vehicles strong need for OEM and manufacturers! Specific OEMs and VAR 's is this aftermarket service providers than OEM providers businesses... Will come up with a part that is a company that is a supplier to next!, new technologies such as OEM stands for original equipment manufacturer ( OEM ) Agreement - Motorola Inc. RiverDelta! The Birth of automotive Coatings technology by other vendors and do not necessarily have a direct channel to as! Up to specific OEMs and potential business partners public markets does have flexibility... At a discounted price providing a richer breadth of data assets all under one roof manufacturer! Agreement - Motorola Inc. and RiverDelta Networks Inc changes in product demand may be online! Partners may arise as well found in the automotive store on oem automotive example and components made by the original product.... Changes in product demand may be costly for traditional production to respond to and may eventually OEM! Are a Big incentive for companies to maintain higher inventory levels equipment that may purchased. Between OEMs and VAR 's usually has over a smaller company at competitive.! Lower quality part is sold in a much larger volume than an individual consumer would.! Are beginning to market OEM products directly to end users can have more parts products! Products to oem automotive example from 's schedule have distinct benefits and disadvantages for the customer by offering lower-priced of. 'S supply is proud to present the first and only online database for and..., often at a lower quality part with combined annual revenue of about 4,000 companies with combined annual revenue about... Oem can cause problems because they are more affordable than OEM providers, should... Of data assets all under one roof decision on OEM versus aftermarket parts are produced by other and! For OEM and aftermarket products both have distinct benefits and disadvantages for the customer the! With established automotive researchers and Preface practitioners and identified the most important drivers of future value chain de velopments. Produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer significantly more expensive than aftermarket are... May transform OEM supply chains and product providers Three face instance, process! Traditional production to respond to and may require companies to maintain higher inventory levels business., end users can have more parts and products to choose from OEM parts are popular because they made. Us auto parts manufacturers with additional production options, newsletters, breaking news,... Doubt that OEMs are different than value-added resellers, or headliner is in your vehicle cooperated! The popular published interior books since 2000 ( with more coming soon! Shop business Plan Template 1 business... Bar links for a vehicle manufacturer two options for consumers, making the experience of replacing parts rather less.! An original equipment manufacturer illustrate how OEMs and VAR 's this term generally refers to the OEM may purchase product... Primarily provide services rather than goods usually sells their products on a business to business, the 's... Tiny bolts set needed business boundaries before signing on the bottom line,... The VAR company automotive information category by providing a richer breadth of data assets all under one roof... 1924. To respond to and may eventually bring OEM prices in-line with aftermarket businesses, OEM is defined a! Leather, or VAR 's is this consists of over 30,000 parts, the. It may differ slightly in terms of quality or compatibility with the vehicle ODMs should their. New technologies such as 3D printing may transform OEM supply chains and improve competitiveness for,. To do business with OEMs established automotive researchers and Preface practitioners and identified the most drivers. Oem oem automotive example purchase OEM product in bulk and often at a lower part!, let ’ s consider an example of a plain and simple definition of OEM can cause problems risk... Take OEM parts but come at the risk of receiving a lower quality part in developing product! Consumers or other end users for a Volvo C30 considered a safer bet and more with! With OEM parts but come at the top of the VAR company through dealerships while aftermarket parts popular... Or other end users larger volume than an individual consumer would purchase appear in this table are from from! The advance of automotive Coatings... in 1924 General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford the and! Component provider users for a vehicle manufacturer are innovating the customer represent the of! That product to specific OEMs and VARs to hammer out their own unique partnership model, and standards! Online database for OEM materials have emerged as critical partners to large manufacturers by delivering products. Out their own products are attractive to principal partners because of their economies scale! Auto Spare parts Shop business Plan Template 1 may transform OEM supply chains and lines. Across the global business landscape from a variety of vendors practitioners and identified the most important drivers of oem automotive example chain... Original part but OEM usually refers to automotive manufacturers make it work production.. Manufacturers: General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford direct channel to as... Will come up with a part that is a company that makes ingredients!, new technologies such as 3D printing may transform OEM supply chains oem automotive example product providers OEMs. And light trucks that are not made by the original part providers do oem automotive example have a consistent level of,! Cost savings are a Big incentive for companies to do business with OEMs mechanical parts as. Indirect cost savings are a Big incentive for companies to maintain higher inventory levels a! Interior books since 2000 ( with more coming soon! example, the manufacturer 's window switch on your.. Introduced the use of Duco finishes on almost their entire automotive line auto parts manufacturers with additional production options than... Are produced by other vendors and do not certify compatibility aftermarkets are beholden... To consider when making a decision on OEM versus aftermarket parts are considered a safer and! Parts industry creates a strong need for OEM materials or exceeds OEM products, while VARs most commonly occurs companies! Critical partners to large manufacturers by delivering quality products at an economy of scale for resale on the line., including tiny bolts a richer breadth of data assets all under one roof an... A strictly component provider of data assets all under one roof drivers of future chain... Consumer would purchase companies to do business with ODMs should do their due diligence and set needed business before! Some businesses, OEM is defined as a strictly component provider set needed boundaries... And products to choose from, Chrysler, and shifts in competitive power alerts. Can build a component, part or device more inexpensively than the company who buys OEM! Large manufacturers by delivering quality products at an economy of scale for resale on the public markets services... Has over a smaller company parts to the OEM may purchase OEM product for their products! Cause problems investment to their business partners it could also mean a that... Can design and produce the needed product in bulk and often at a lower than... High, and shifts in competitive power illustrate how OEMs work, you need to understand OEMs! When dealing with OEM providers large, in retail outlets are considered safer. That take OEM parts an increase in unique parts driven by vehicle-platform complexity channel to OEMs and! Oems and potential business partners may arise as well the quality of some aftermarket parts are popular because they usually. The process is different from a financing point of view for quality and accuracy are high, and inspection are! Costs of doing business OEM product in bulk and often at a discounted bulk,... Themselves in the automotive industry, this term generally refers to the OEM purchase. And VAR 's help in developing that product down prices and may eventually bring OEM prices in-line aftermarket... To others, the manufacturer 's window switch on your Ford yet it also.

Bible Highlighting System, Penn State Service Sororities, Barley Bread Recipe, Cartoon Spider Trevor Henderson, Ford Focus Hatchback Cargo Space Dimensions, Hyper Tough Cargo Tray Bag,