Photo: The Phillips Collection. There is no Scriptural evidence that Peter ever was in Rome. If you believe in Pentecost, that is. However, to reject the possibility of his ever going to Rome based on his simple status and not knowing Latin or Greek is far-fetched. St. Peter's Basilica, which is called "Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano" in Italian, is a large church in the Vatican City, in Rome, Italy.It is often called "the greatest church in Christendom". Your email address will not be published. “I do not, as Peter and Paul, issue commandments unto you [Romans]. Also, 1 John 4 “Beloved believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God…”. Only later were some bones produced from that excavation, and it’s a fascinating story we talk about in Finding Jesus. I myself very much appreciated my college education. So, one can only assume that Peter was fluent in Koine Greek, the language in which 1 & 2 Peter were written in. Biblical Archaeology Review tablet edition: Stay on top of the latest research! The Roman Empire was still very much in power, and remained in power until the end of the 2nd century. Christians of different theological backgrounds are in disagreement as to the exact significance of Peter's ministry. The great city was split into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. 01-03-2021 BULLETIN; 12-27-2020 BULLETIN; 12-20-2020 BULLETIN; 12-13-2020 BULLETIN; 12-06-2020 BULLETIN; 11-29-2020 BULLETIN; FAITH FORMATION. These councils were gathered by command of the Bishop of Rome, the city of the world. It’s funny because Jesus warned His Disciples to not believe ANYONE who said that they saw Him after He had ascended, declaring that everyone will see His return all at the same time. For with this Church, because of its superior origin, all Churches must agree, that is, all the faithful in the whole world; and it is in her that the faithful everywhere have maintained the Apostolic tradition (ibid 3:3:2). He felt it was time to build a new church, one of brick no less. The official Vatican position, first stated in 1968, is that they might be. The Church is built on Revelation, not a man.. no Peter. When it was excavated in the 1950s, archaeologists were shocked to find that there was no grave and no bones under the tropaion. Since history has shown the RC church to be a lying church, we shall take its tradition with a ton of salt. Not bashing the RCC, but as a disciple of first century Christianity, and a long time student of Biblical and ancient history, it must be said. Neither do the apostles proceed individually on their own, and anyone who would [presume to] set up another chair in opposition to that single chair would, by that very fact, be a schismatic and a sinner. Earlier, Clement of Rome, though mentioning Paul and Peter together, makes Paul’s preaching in both the E and the W a distinguishing feature of that apostle, implying that Peter was never in the W. As the vicious persecution of Christians by the Roman government (under Nero) had seemingly not yet begun, there would have been no reason for Peter to veil the identity of Rome by the use of another name. Whether we can pin Peter’s presence in Rome to any authenticated histories is admittedly still an open question, but Peter by the NT accounts was genuinely one of the leaders of the newly formed movement ( Christianity, if you will).There are several accounts within the NT that would lead a reader to judge him as such. I am more inclined to believe that Peter reached and administered from Rome rather than did the same from Babylon based on patristic writings. It would appear that the lack of evidence for Peter being the bishop of Rome is that the search for evidence was desultory or unenthusiastic. In the utmost secrecy, they have penetrated into a pagan cemetery buried for 16 centuries. (Acts 12:16-17) Meanwhile Peter continued knocking; and when they opened the gate, they saw him and were amazed. . . Paul expanded and existing church in Rome. Archaeological investigation has not solved with any great degree of certainty the question of the location of the tomb of Peter. the Jews…….there was a large Jewish population in Babylon, and it was a known centre of Judaism at this time. This whole notion that the Roman Catholic Church made up the story that St. Peter was in Rome is nothing but rubbish. Peabody: Hendrickson. But for ‘money’ sake and ‘popularity’ sake, it is very convenient to have Peter in Rome especially after thinking, as heathen did, that Jesus Christ going to build His Church on a man, Peter. Peter’s writings are said to have been written around 66 A.D. When Nero heard of those things, and observed that not only in Rome, but in every other place, a great multitude revolted daily from the worship of idols, and, condemning their old ways, went over to the new religion, he, an execrable and pernicious tyrant, sprung forward to raze the heavenly temple and destroy the true faith. Paul in Rome, definitely. Jesus’ chief disciple, Peter (also called Simon Peter or Cephas), has been associated with Rome for nearly 2,000 years. He is Simon Peter, Simon is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Simeon. His brother Andrew, and friend Philip (both disciples) were from the town and had Greek names. Birger A. Pearson documents “redactions”, “additions”, “deletions” in the “Acts of Mark”, in the 4th and 5th century by Rome and Paris. 2. The woman was clothed in purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a gold cup full of abominations and of the unclean things of her immorality, and on her forehead a name was written, a mystery, “BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.” And I saw the woman drunk with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the witnesses of Jesus. That’s why his presence or absence in Rome is so contentious today. PETER OF ALEXANDRIA 1 Peter 5:13” [Church History 2:15:2 (c. A.D. 312)]. “Where are you going?” in Latin is “Quo Vadis?” and there’s a medieval church in Rome called the Church of Quo Vadis at the spot where Peter met Jesus. Follow the commandments of Gods son Yeshua and ask for guidance, understanding and wisdom. Besides, it is where the Pope presides many liturgies all year round. Join the BAS Library today. ); Although Saint Peter's is one of the most important Catholic churches in the world, it is NOT the Pope's church.The Pope, who is the Bishop of Rome, has as his church the Archbasilica of Saint John in Lateran (also in Rome.) “Matthew also issued among the Hebrews a written Gospel in their own language, while Peter and Paul were evangelizing in Rome and laying the foundation of the Church” [Against Heresies, 3:1:1 (c. A.D. 189)]. of the apostles, and the one who on account of his virtue was the speaker for all the others, to Rome against this great corrupter (Simon Magus, an imposter) of life. They launched giant stones from catapults at the city. She is wearing purple and scarlet and precious stones. Babylon the great was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of His fierce wrath. Original St. Peter’s Church 1837 – 1897 Located on the site of the present St. Peter’s School Corner of Floyd Ave. and St. Peter’s Ave. Now his efforts could be centered on Rome where his parish grew rapidly. William, the only document that ‘might’ be accurate would be the first. [T]hey launched the weapon of their prayers against Magus, and struck him down to the earth. Wrong. He had several decades to lear Greek anyway… 1 Peter was Greek and has great evidence of it being written by Peter… Jesus also taught the disciples/apostles to go out and spread the Gospel, so there’s no surprise Peter may have left Israel. What happened to them? After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, also handed down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter (Against Heresies 3:1:1 [A.D. 189]). The façade of the basilica, with a giant orderof columns, stretches across the end of the square and is approached by steps on which stand tw… He motioned to them with his hand to be silent, and described for them how the Lord had brought him out of the prison. There is no solid evidence—textual or even archaeological—that Peter died in Rome. And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount.”. June 29 marks the festival of Peter and Paul, ranking among the 12 most important celebrations of the Roman Catholic Church. Yes, Nero hated Christians, and accused them of burning Rome in 64 A.D. and punished them. Do we believe that Peter actually lived to a day when referring to Rome as Babylon would make any sense to a reader ( e.g. “Thus Peter, the first of the apostles, having been often apprehended, and thrown into prison, and treated with ignominy, was last of all crucified at Rome” [Penance, canon 9 (A.D. 306)]. As part of the general question of Peter’s residence and martyrdom in Rome, debated since the appearance of the Defensor pacis of Marsilius of Padua (c. 1275–c. Have we paid attention to the fine archaeological work done in 2016?? Jesus was, according to some scholars, a radical Pharisee. Our live webcam from Rome’s Piazza Risorgimento offers users an incredible view of St. Peter’s cupola.The dome is the tallest in the world measuring approximately 136 meters in height and circa 41 meters in diameter. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, The man and his position among the disciples, Incidents important in interpretations of Peter, The position of Peter in the apostolic church. Doesn’t Peter send greeting from Babylon in his letters? According to Peter’s own testimony, he composed his first letter while at Babylon. The ins and outs of such communication would definitely be a question within Biblical archeological review. The First Successor to St. Peter in Rome. ~Purpose Statement of the Diocese of Atlanta Our vision of St. Peter's is to accept, to share and to affirm the love of Christ through our life together. So it can’t be used either way: to prove he was or he wasn’t. For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. You sem to suggest that is questionable as well, of which I am quite astounded… All we know for certain is that Peter didn’t return to Jerusalem (because people make a point of saying he didn’t). Paul had to confront his on this one one occasion. If Peter was the Apostle to the circumcised, why would Peter go to Rome? Where is it written in the bible that all evidence should be in the bible. Furthermore, the miracle is that none of them knew anything about the problems he left behind. -He won’t be making private visits. The Scripture said He was/is going to build His Church on Revelation.. flesh and blood did not ‘reveal’ this to you… ‘Revelation’ is only given by God, so it can’t be duplicated. “Consensus among academics points to its being based on the Acts of John, and traditionally both works were said to be written by Leucius Charinus, whom Epiphanius identifies as the companion of John.”, The biggest irony about all of this is that the idea of Peter in Rome is dismissed as too improbable to give any credence to. Peter’s brother Andrew had a Greek name,as did the Apostle Philip. The Coptic church of Egypt says the same. Still the tradition that Peter was in Rome is early. Observers shoveled abuse upon the unfortunate spectacle, rivaling each other to come up with the most appropriate epithets to … Eusebius places no credence in the book, the Acts of Peter, yet he attests to Peter acting as the Bishop of Rome – from his perspective in Asia Minor. Website of the Congregation of the Missionary Sisters of St. Peter Claver, founded in 1894 by Blessed Mary Theresa Ledóchowska. In this case, the tour will include a 3-hour visit to the Vatican Museums and Sistine Chapel instead of St. Peter's. Not everyone in this world is a confessing Christian, though pretty much everyone agrees that Jesus had a profound impact on history. The Lord says to Peter: “I say to you,” he says, “that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell will not overcome it. As the delusion was extending, Peter and Paul, a noble pair, chief rulers of the Church, arrived and set the error right. Jerusalem is also called Sodom and Egypt, “And their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city which mystically is called Sodom and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified.” (Rev 11:8) The Lord was crucified in Jerusalem. Or so once thought some Pharisees. Section(s) Its central dome dominates the skyline of Rome. Five festivals in the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church involve honour paid to Peter. Israel.. He might have gone to Rome towards the end of his life. I encourage everyone to take my position: “If the Gospels were not written by the authors, I am happy to accept your claim if you can give me the name of the real author.” I sleep well at night. Those who are BAPTIZED and BELIEVE are saved. Furthermore, Peter was well-acompanied by Paul and other provicient ‘Greek-speakers’. Christianity was not spread through Rome until 50 A.D. and that was through Apostle Paul. Worship god in purity and obey him. It is probable that the tradition of a 25-year episcopate of Peter in Rome is not earlier than the beginning or the middle of the 3rd century. St. Peter’s Basilica is one of the holiest temples for Christendom and one of the largest churches in the world. Therefore, one can only conclude that it was Peter that wrote 2 Peter. THEODORE ABU QURRAH Peter isn’t mentioned in the saint list in the Book of Romans. However, when it comes to believers in Jesus Christ, the lukewarm are spit out. But there are reasons to be skeptical that the epistles of Peter were written by his hand or during his lifetime. Cupola of St. Peter Basilica - Vatican City. Ronald, I think it would not “make a lot of sense” for Peter to have gone to Babylon, because in his lifetime, it had not been a major urban centre since its inhabitants were deported to Seleucia over three hundred years earlier. —Letter to the Romans, Ch 4. Is interesting how religion takes advantage of the innocence of the spirit of the people, this is one more of the lies that we Never a Catholic Bishop. Simon challenges Peter to a flying contest around the Roman Forum, but Peter’s prayers make Simon crash to the ground, proving that Simon’s powers are not as great as his own. This is what the priests wore. I strongly believe St. Peter was in Rome, died in Rome on the cross as tradition indicates. The analyses Babylon was symbolic is strengthen by accompanied name Marcus. The word itself is very unusual; sometimes translated as “trophy,” it means something like a war memorial or a cenotaph (i.e., an empty grave). Denzey Lewis appears in the CNN series Finding Jesus: Faith, Fact, Forgery, which aims to investigate artifacts that shed light on the world in which Jesus lived.—Ed. Irenaeus of Lyons wrote in the 2nd century: …by indicating that tradition derived from the apostles, of the very great, the very ancient, and universally known Church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul…, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.ix.iv.iv.html. As Rome's Christians honored Peter's chains from the Mamertine, so the Church in Jerusalem kept his chains from the Herodian prison. FAITH FORMATION; RCIA; LITURGY & WORSHIP. “[Simon Magus] so deceived the city of Rome that Claudius set up his statue. I’d like to challenge the notion that Peter spoke only Aramaic. IRENAEUS (Irenaeus was taught by Polycarp. It’s off the Via Appia at the modern site of the Catacombs of San Sebastiano, and you can still go and visit it today, although the memorial itself is largely built over. IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH (Taught by the Apostle John.) You can book it here (only St Peter's Basilica) or here (also incl. “Peter in Rome,” Bible Review, February 2004. Josephus records that the stones weighed a talent (100pounds) and that they were white. P. 7. The only one who visited the city as its star missionary was Paul. For me, the presence of St Peter in Rome cannot be proved or disproved definitively from biblical testimony. “There is one God, and Christ is one, and there is one Church, and one chair founded upon the rock by the word of the Lord. After confinement in jail and escape, it is not a matter of controversy that Peter did travel and act as a leader in Asia minor, including positions of authority in Antioch and elsewhere. Greek was quite abundant in Palestine/Israel too you know… There were many Romans and traders there, it’s not unreasonable to conclude Greek was a circulating language or that the common folk could understand some of it. The Roman church was clearly founded by Peter. When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. But Peter’s biography can only be dimly constructed; he died in Rome (according to early tradition) in Nero’s persecution (64) about the same time as Paul.…. As this article explains, Peter was a simple fisherman and could only speak–and probably not even write—Aramaic. Chapter 2. “Babylon” is a cryptic term indicating Rome, and it is the understanding utilized in Revelation 14:8; 16:19; 17:5, 6 and in the works of various Jewish seers. Is it likely that the apostle Peter went to Rome and founded the church there? David R. Cartlidge, “The Fall and Rise of Simon Magus,” Bible Review, Fall 2005. The Repentant St. Peter by El Greco. In a section of Church History by Eusebius (AD 260/265 – 339/340 ) concerned with both canon and leadership succession prior to his fourth century era, there are some interesting contributions to this discussion. St. Peter's Basilica is the second-largest Christian church in the world. Also, when Paul, in his letters (from Rome), to the the various congregations, Peter’s name is not included among those sending their greetings……..this would have been extremely unusual, had Peter been in Rome at the time of Paul’s writing these letters, because Peter would have been known by many in those congregations. And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. The blow they gave was no way to be sustained, not only by those that stood first in the way, but by those that were beyond them for a great space. You say the rest could simply be repeating. St. Peter's Basilica, Rome: The instrument is housed in two identical cases between the front-most large columns holding up the great dome and the Altar of the Chair of Peter. These facts are related by Origen in the third volume of his Commentary on Genesis. Is there any evidence that the apostle Peter died in Rome? Questions and answers about St. Peter the Apostle. We ask Christ to confirm us in this forever, that we might inherit through it his kingdom, in that we have joined with it the doing of his commandments. peter in Rome was started long after he had died so it is just a fancy rumor. In the center is the Altar of the Chair of Peter, a masterpiece which is unmistakably the work of Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1659). This makes sense, because Paul was an apostle to the nations, while Galatians 2:7-9 show that Peter’s main role was to preach to those who were circumcised, i.e. On rare occasions, St. Peter's Basilica closes without notice. Also from his name we can tell that there was some Hellenization. Also, in 1 Peter 5:13 it states “The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son.” This verse seems to imply that at the time that Peter wrote this letter, around 60-63 AD, he was in Babylon, in what is today Iraq, if one is to take Babylon in its literal sense. Afterall, it’s not like the Holy Spirit was sent in the place of Jesus until His return or nothing (John 14:26, 16:7, 16:13). Ignatius, Polycarp and Clement were direct companions/pupils of the apostles, what possible attestation could be better?? But it turns out that there’s a second site in Rome where pilgrims went for hundreds of years, which was known as the Memoria Apostolorum (the Memorial to the Apostles). Owing to envy, Paul also obtained the reward of patient endurance, after being seven times thrown into captivity, compelled to flee, and stoned. 15, col. 755), when discussing production of the Babylonian Talmud, refers to Judaism’s “great academies of Babylon” during the Common Era. Liturgical sources such as the Depositio martyrum and the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, though interesting, add nothing to the literary evidence. I believe the point is very good that a fisherman from Israel was not fluid in the languages of Rome. St. Peter’s Square in Rome, Italy. The excavation of this site, which lies far beneath the high altar of the present church of St. Peter, was begun in 1939. Emperor Claudius had expelled all the Jews from Rome. The places Peter spread Jesus’ teachings definitely coincide with this. St. Peter’s Church History; St Peters History 2; History Photos; Pastors and Associates; MINISTRIES; PARISH NEWS; Sign up for Christmas Mass; BULLETIN. In fact from what has preceded, how can we tie down the date of his death – unless we assume it was the result of a particular persecution by Roman authorities or an emperor (Nero?). It’s the same in the Book of Acts. He asks Jesus, “Where are you going?” Jesus tells Peter that he is going to Rome “to be crucified again.” Peter realizes, from this, that he cannot flee from his fate. Thank you, Nicola Denzey Lewis. At one point in Acts of Peter, Peter is taunted by a flamboyant heretic, Simon Magus. When James, Cephas, and John, recognized as pillars, acknowledged the grace that had been given to me, they gave the right hand of fellowship to me and Barnabus, agreeing that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the circumcised.”. The great harlot is also drunk with the blood of the saints and of the witnesses of Jesus. Week Days Saturday English 07:00:12 . Yet Acts 15:7 says “After there had been much debate, Peter stood up and said to them “Brothers, you are aware that in the early days God made a choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles would hear the gospel message and believe…” Maybe he was just referring to the incident with Cornelius? It should be noted that no early Church Father or early Christians claim that Peter went to Babylon in Iraq. If a grave of the apostle did exist in the area of the base of the aedicula, nothing identifiable of that grave remains today. St. Peter the Apostle, original name Simeon or Simon, (died 64 ce, Rome [Italy]), disciple of Jesus Christ, recognized in the early Christian church as the leader of the 12 disciples and by the Roman Catholic Church as the first of its unbroken succession of popes. Others are most definitely not convinced. “Since, moreover, you are close upon Italy, you have Rome, from which there comes even into our own hands the very authority (of apostles themselves). So this church Quo Vadis that has claimed to have the marblized footprint of Jesus (post-ascension) is built on a fallacy; not on the Truth. In short, there is no early textual evidence for Peter in Rome, so for some people, it’s very hard to believe that he ever traveled there. hard to prove. Also, Peter’s name is not included among those sending greetings in Paul’s letters written from Rome—Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 2 Timothy, Philemon, Hebrews. With regard to the canon, many of his remarks modern disputes still echo the questions raised – and the skepticism Eusebius voiced about a 15th epistle of Paul ( Hebrews) and a second epistle of Peter. …two parts: the mission under Peter, centred in Jerusalem (chapters 1–12); and the missions to the Gentiles all the way to Rome (, Peter, whose death and traditions concerning him were known to the readers of the time of I Peter, gives weight and authority to the letter that is formed in many ways as a farewell and admonition to those who follow, in order that they may…, Peter. Not only is it a very long way, according to the New Testament, Peter was a fisherman who was not very educated and who spoke only Aramaic; he was not the type of person that might travel widely across the Roman Empire to a large city where Latin and Greek were the dominant languages. The word Rome occurs only nine times in the Bible [actually, ten times in the Old Testament and ten times in the New], and never is Peter mentioned in connection with it. notice also that Philip speaks with Greeks (John 12:20–21). . Fishing was a business, and peter was successful at it. Died in Rome, most likely. In Galatians 2:7-9 The apostle Paul writes “On the contrary, they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcised, just as Peter was for the circumcised, since the One at work in Peter for an apostleship to the circumcised was also at work in me for the Gentiles. In Italian, St. Peter… Adorations St. Mary’s Oratory 210 W. Liberty St. Rome Friday English 09:00:00 16:00:00. The connection to the RCC is virtually impossible, unless Peter could time travel. Thus was he removed from the world, and went into the holy place, having proved himself a striking example of patience. The epistle to the Romans doesn’t clear up much. What’s amazing is that the site preserves around 600 graffiti scrawled by Christian pilgrims in the early Middle Ages, most of them prayers to Peter and Paul, the joint patron saints of Rome. This implies someone is already teaching in Rome. And, due to the similarities between 1 & 2 Peter, one can only conclude that Peter was the writer of both epistles. Further early evidence for the tradition is found in the Letter to the Romans by St. Ignatius, the early 2nd-century bishop of Antioch. The rest could simply be repeating. But a tropaion is not a tomb. Said by Eusebius it was done by Rome. Apostle Peter was never in Rome. And even Paul used scribes to write his letters — all the more likely for a Galilean fisherman to use one instead of trying to write without Google Translate. The problems encountered in excavation and interpretation of what has been discovered are extremely complex. The main point is the revelation of Who Jesus is, not who Peter is, It is also good to remember he was to his death, a Jew. Last, the dedications of the basilicas of Peter and Paul, commemorating their construction by the emperor Constantine, are celebrated in the festival of November 18. St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City, the traditional burial site of the apostle Peter. Peter Ever in the City of Rome? “And Peter makes mention of Mark in his first epistle which they say that he wrote in Rome itself, as is indicated by him, when he calls the city, by a figure, Babylon, as he does in the following words: The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, salutes you; and so does Marcus my son. In 1 Peter 5:13, Peter sends greetings to the global Church on behalf of the Church “ in Babylon, ” which is used elsewhere in the New Testament (specifically, The Book of Revelation) to speak of Rome. Trade was in Greek. This fact is very clearly attested to in St. Paul’s epistle to the Romans and further testified to by the Acts of the Apostles. (270) Now, the stones that were cast were of the weight of a talent, and were carried two furlongs and farther. That whole story of Peter being the ‘first pope’ never made sense, but was nevertheless taught by the RCC. Some from the late first and early second century. (They had been expelled from Rome before by Tiberius, according to Josephus and Cassius Dio; probably on neither occasion did many people go very far.) Why, then, deny Christians the testimonies of tradition? Sign up to receive our email newsletter and never miss an update. The claims that the church of Rome was founded by Peter or that he served as its first bishop are in dispute and rest on evidence that is not earlier than the middle or late 2nd century. Too contradicting. . . Please Read Phillipians 3:7-11. It certainly looks like people believed that Peter was buried there, but excavators found no evidence of a tomb there, either! I do not know how powerful is the Catholic Church, suspected by somebody here of hiding facts to disseminate myth. The author of this chapter is aware of a tradition concerning the martyrdom of Peter when the apostle was an old man. Built upon the tomb of St Peter, this splendid church is a magnificent must-see for visitors to Rome. Acts 2:9-11 KJV. An honest and objective analysis shows that it is most likely what it appears to be. St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City, the traditional burial site of the apostle Peter. On a positive note i am surprised that Peter is refered to as St Peter in the article which is a very Catholic adress for those who died in the friendship of our Lord Chris Jesus. Some from the town and had Greek names Peter isn ’ t that a in. Though interesting, add nothing to the “ great city ” is referred to as Babylon and from. 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To come and mar their thinking deacon named Gaius talks about meeting Peter in Rome Jesus had a profound on. Or Romans to a large Jewish population in and around the end his!