Most of the alloys developed in this Ti-Al composition are two-phase alloys that contain nearly 23–25 at% Al and 11–18 at% Nb. Medium-speed quench oils are used widely for applications in which Rotating bending specimen geometry. In this process, the undesired low-temperature processes … If the gear is to be hardened throughout, pearlite formation must be avoided. Water-based caustic quenchants actually quench parts even more quickly than oil, but the severity with which caustics quench parts can cause significant distortion or even cracking for some materials. Very small B additions have a profound effect in displacing the TTT curve to the right, a fact capitalized upon to conserve strategic metals. 3.1 Effect of quenchant temperature on hardness . For this reason, natural convection does not occur. Figure 25. These studies revealed that addition of Ta to partly substitute Nb can improve the strength and ductility of the orthorhombic alloy [90], whereas Fe and Ni additions strongly degraded creep properties of the alloy [84]. Pearlite formation relies on solid-state diffusion processes in the austenite to redistribute these atoms to the appropriate phase boundaries. Table 7.4. In practice oil quenching is preferable to water quenching because it is not as prone to causing warpage and cracking. In this case, four hot working steps are performed to complete the forging process. In addition, the creep resistance of a fully lath O + bcc microstructure was superior to a fully equiaxed microstructure containing an identical bcc-phase volume fraction [85]. The steel is heated to a temperature above the critical point(45 steel quenching temperature of 840-860 ℃, carbon steel tool quenching temperature of 760 ~ … The slower the cooling process, the more austenitic grain structure will remain, providing a soft material with good ductility but lower strength. The diagram is a function of temperature and time, showing the grain structure that will be formed based on how quickly the material is cooled or quenched. This cost includes capital cost of heat recovery and bio-oil quenching unit and has a scale factor of 0.65-0.70. Compression creep characteristics of alloys having single O-phase microstructures with compositions as Ti-(24-27)Al-(15-27)Nb at% have been examined and activation energies of creep were estimated between 294 and 376 kJ/mol. Whereas the TRIP-aided steel with bainitic ferrite matrix is produced by complete austenitization as a first step (instead of IA) followed by IBT [23], the TRIP-aided steel with annealed martensite matrix is produced by subjecting the steel to an additional austenitizing and oil quenching step prior to the conventional treatment of IA and IBT [24]. There will be thin films of retained austenite between martensite laths, between martensite packets and at the former austenite grain boundaries if lath martensite is formed. GarrisonJr, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. The flash point of oil is an important characteristic to be aware of when choosing an appropriate oil for quenching, because it is the temperature at which an oil ignites. This value of activation energy is almost twice that for more conventional Ti3Al-based alloys such as Ti-24Al-11Nb [77,78]. Table 1. Thus, by introducing both types of O-phases the superior mechanical properties of the alloy can be induced. The cooling capacity of a quenching oil is affected by its temperature and the agitation rate. Figure 27. Indian Inst. The hot oil must not come into a contact with air because of the possible oxidation and ignition. Could I say heat up a railway spike to cherry red, dunk it and then let it sit in the quench oil, heating it up to an arbitrary temp. Oil quenching is popular because of its severity; that is, it transfers heat more quickly compared to other quenching media like molten salt or gas. Met. K. Sugimoto, M. Mukherjee, in Automotive Steels, 2017. Manufacturing processes for CrMoV rotor forgings are not necessarily the same for all the forgemasters. Influence of temperature, concentration, and agitation on the cooling capacity of Polyquench VP65. Intention: Quenching is usually done to obtain a … Capital Cost of Bio-Oil Production Plant (Derived from Sarkar and Kumar, 2010b). We can do this using water, oil or air. As previously discussed, a quench oil’s quenching performance is dependent on its viscosity. The steel is heated to a temperature above the critical point(45 steel quenching temperature of 840-860 ℃, carbon steel tool quenching temperature of 760 ~ … One possible solution is to introduce thermomechanical processing at subtransus temperatures [84] and tailor the microstructures for obtaining a balance of properties. Increasing Nb concentration in Ti3Al upon oil quenching allows retaining high-temperature B2 phase up to room temperature. Different types of oil are often used depending on the application because of their varying cooling rates and flash points. Upper: Concentration 5%, 0.4 m s−1, middle: 30 °C, 0.4 m s−1, and lower: 30 °C, concentration 5%. You will need to preheat these oils to slightly higher temperatures when compared to commercial quenching oils (120 - 130 degrees Fahrenheit). The other physical properties of quenching oil can also have a significant effect on how efficient it is at quenching a particular steel type. A fine grain size confers the toughness required of tool steels. Dimensions in millimetres. Figure 5.16 shows an example of heat treatment of CrMoV rotor forging. This sensitivity disappeared when the austenitizing temperature was decreased to 954 °C. Specimens were heated from room temperature to 800 °C at heating rate of 200 °C/hour. In addition, mechanical properties can also be improved via tailoring the microstructure. The diffusible hydrogen was defined as hydrogen which evolved between room temperature and 300 °C. The hardness values of the steel samples increases considerably with the quenchant temperature. This problem does not surface in commonly welded structural steels containing only 0.15 to 0.2 wt% C. Yukitaka Murakami, in Metal Fatigue (Second Edition), 2019. In this alloy series, alloys like Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo and Ti-23Al-17Nb-1Mo have been given active consideration. lection of the mar-quenching oil is based on the operating temperature and quenching characteristics. While there are many different types of oil used in quenching, two commonly used oils are fast and hot oils. This then permits the use of compositions free of carbide inhibiting elements like Si/Al/P. A coarse-grained austenite provides few nucleation sites from which to launch the pearlite transformation, slowing it down. At present, there are three kinds of new quenching oil: high speed quenching oil, bright quenching oil and vacuum quenching oil. We would like to map the kinetics of austenite decomposition along this or other sloping cooling curves as we did previously along the horizontal isotherms; however, it is a more difficult experimental challenge to generate a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve than an isothermal transformation (IT or TTT) curve. The trade-off with hot oils is that while they offer more uniform cooling throughout a part’s cross-section, it takes longer to achieve. The tensile elongation increases with addition of yttrium as its addition refines the microstructure [91,92]. Duckworth, Quantitative evaluation of effects of shape and size of artificially introduced alumina particles on the fatigue strength of 1.5Ni-Cr-Mo (En24) steel, Int. Quench cracking is a problem in all steels containing carbon but it is a particular problem in steels containing carbon and large amounts of chromium. Since the adjustment of these alloying elements to optimize the mechanical property of the alloy seems to have limitations, addition of other alloy elements (W, Mo, V, Ta) have been attempted. 9-7A. Quenching oil temp. Alloying has a dramatic influence on the response of a steel to heat treatment. Welding is a joining process in which the base metals experience temperature excursions ranging from above the melting point to room temperature. above/100/150/This may seem strange; normally, the colder the quench medium, the harder and stronger the metal. Figure 26 shows cooling curves measured in polymers that have been used in heat treatment workshops for different running times. Figure 7.21. As the fatigue behaviour of 1.5Ni–Cr–Mo steels is well known En24 steel was adopted as the test material. The purpose is to delay the cooling for a length of time to equalise the temperature throughout the piece. Figure 24. As long as the temperature of the oil bath does not go over 120°F, it is safe to use. The martensitic stainless steels are austenitized, cooled to room temperature, possibly refrigerated at some temperature below room temperature to minimize retained austenite content, and then tempered to achieve the desired strength and toughness. In this case, applied stress was defined as a bending stress at outside of center of longitudinal direction of specimen, and calculated by following equation (1). Interrupted quenching of steels typically in a molten salt bath, at a temperature just above the martensitic phase. Though most TRIP aided steels have the ferrite/bainite/retained austenite microstructure described above, a lot of work has also been done to develop alternate microstructures in response to the complex formability requirements of the present day auto-body manufacturers. Whatever the suggested installation, ECM Technologies always includes in its offers, depending on customers’ needs, a cold oil quenching solution (80°C max) and a hot oil quenching one (80°C up to 180°C). The hardening response of steel due to different cooling rates and alloy compositions will now be addressed. The 32HS grade is a higher viscosity, high-speed quench oil that provides the highest hardening power. This usually is undertaken to maintain mechanical properties associated with a crystalline structure or phase distribution that would be lost upon slow cooling. The CrMoV rotor is generally used at steam temperatures up to 566 °C. The selection of the proper quench oil is critical for proper heat-treating operations. Above all, the temperature affects the cooling sequence at lower temperatures, but also at the beginning of the cooling sequence, see Figure 22. ... Oil Quenching. Table 5.2 shows the chemistry of CrMoV steel and 2CrMoNiWV steel for rotor forging. The other physical properties of quenching oil can also have a significant effect on how efficient it is at quenching a particular steel type. While cooling speed in fast oils depends on the specific properties of the oil, the main reason these oils cool parts more quickly is because they’re formulated to reduce the length of the vapor stage and extend the length of the boiling stage—the fastest of the three cooling stages. Hydrogen charging was conducted by cathode charging method with hydrogen charging solution of 3 %-NaCl + 0-20 g/L-NH4SCN solution at 25 °C at current density of 0.1-10 A/m2 for 48 hours. An example of the forging process of a conventional CrMoV rotor shaft is shown in Fig. OPERATION: Bath Parameters 0000026916 00000 n 0000028488 00000 n 2. Example of creep rupture strength of CrMoV rotors. Figure 1. Improper selection of quench oil can result in short oil life, or soft parts. Rather, it is cooled continuously from austenitizing temperatures to room temperature, and transforms incrementally in a complex way dependent on the cooling rate. Fully lath O + bcc microstructures have exhibited good fracture toughness and creep resistance in super bcc-transus-processed and/or heat-treated conditions [71,72]. Aquatensid, 10%, 20 °C. (B) Schematic cooling rates at point P on the gear due to water quenching (W), oil quenching (O), air cooling (A), and furnace cooling (F). Process to Oil Quench Steel at ThermTech We start by fully austenitizing the steel in the temperature range of 1500°F – 1650°F, depending on the steel grade. Corresponding changes may also occur for other quenchants such as salts and brine, but these are not addressed in this chapter. In addition, the temperature, viscosity and other chemical properties of oils can be adjusted to achieve different outcomes. The matrix of EB–CHR is martensite. Polymers are sensitive regarding temperature variations as well as changes in concentration, which entails a careful control and maintenance of the quenchant. There are two basic ways to obtain high-speed quenching oil. Also, the vapor pressure of the quench oil must be compatible with the selected 9-6 where the two behaviors are superimposed. 10.1. This unit has a scale factor of 0.70 and if the size of the plant is different, this scale factor can be used to estimate the cost at a particular size. Caustics are the most severe quenchants, followed by oils, then salts and, finally, gases. Figure 7.19. FIGURE 9-8. Reply to this topic; Start new topic; Items cooled in fast oils cool more quickly. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Heat transfer oils are used in the following applications: The measured hardness also tracks the quench severity, with water quenching yielding the highest, and furnace cooling, the lowest values. X-ray stress measurement indicated the existence of residual stresses of approximately –640 MPa at the surface of type RS specimens. In every case, the fracture appearance of the test specimens containing added alumina particles was different from that observed on the specimens without artificial inclusions. 8.6). Production sequence for a CrMoV rotor shaft. Mineral oil, canola oil, peanut oil, actual quenching oils, but never motor oil, especially used motor oil. The residual stress (σr) is assumed to be a mean stress (σm) in the evaluation of fatigue strength. behaviour based on low viscosity selectively-refined, dewaxed base oils of hydrorefined prods. Flow diagram for the EB–CHR steel-making process and for the specimen preparation procedure. The most important alloying element in steel is carbon and it exerts a strong effect in shifting the TTT curve to the right. 1 at% Mo is necessary for high-temperature properties. Yet another process route called the “Quenching and Partitioning” route has been developed [29] to produce a higher fraction of retained austenite by carbon partitioning from supersaturated martensite. Tensile properties of these steels after heat treatment are shown in Table 2. Amit Kumar, Susanjib Sarkar, in Biofuels, 2011. From what has been said it might be inferred that large grain size is desirable to slow the transformation of austenite. Then quality heat treatment, quenching and tempering are performed followed by more machining. Considerable discussions took place between turbine builders to determine the optimum balance of toughness and creep strength and heat treatments in the development of the target properties.11 In the early 1950s in the USA, a notch sensitivity problem caused by extremely high austenitizing temperatures over 1000 °C was disclosed. K. Sugimoto, Advanced high- and ultra high-strength TRIP-aided steels, Trans. In order to have high toughness at room temperature and strength at elevated temperatures, general understanding emerges that [74]: Al content should be greater than 25 at%. BUT, I am wondering just how much. In general, these studies can mainly be divided into two categories. After machining and NDE, stress relieved heat treatment is performed followed by the heat indication test. 2 shows the graph of hardness values of the heat-treated samples against the quenchant temperature. These studies have shown that higher Al/Nb ratio improves oxidation resistance at the expense of the plasticity, and the decrease of Nb concentration reduces the creep resistance of alloys. Those steels that are susceptible to this potential hazard should be preheated prior to welding to ensure that the cooling rate in air is less than the critical one required to trigger martensite formation. Quenching Oil. The cooling capacity of a polymer quenchant is affected by the type of polymer the quenchant is constituted, concentration, temperature, and agitation, see Figure 25. 7.20 shows the specimen geometry. The effects of the rate of quenching on the microstructure and mechanical properties has not been investigated to the same extent for the low carbon precipitation-strengthened stainless steels. When it comes to steel heat treatment, it is clear that heat treated metal parts perform better.They resist wear and maintain their form while under pressure. Due to degradation, oil viscosity changes with time. The cooling performance of quenchants are also affected by contaminants as well as change in cooling characteristics due to degradation and changes in chemistry of the quenchant during use, which is also covered. quench oils with moderate-to-high hardening power. T. Hojo, ... H. Waki, in Recent Advances in Structural Integrity Analysis - Proceedings of the International Congress (APCF/SIF-2014), 2014. They will contain inclusions, as do all steels, fine second-phase particles inherited from the austenitizing temperature, and will largely consist of lath or dislocated martensite rather than plate martensite. This process involves an initial full/partial austenitization step, followed by “quenching” and then “partitioning” treatments. As clearly shown in theFig. These are oils with a GMQS of 10 to 12 seconds at 80°F. This can be seen, for example, in a file blade for processing workpieces. Fixture and component weight is … Quenching is a rapid way of bringing metal back to room temperature after heat treatment to prevent the cooling process from dramatically changing the metal's microstructure. Mo is added in place of Mn, because Mn is lost during electron beam remelting, decreasing hardenability. During use in production, the polymer bath is exposed for large temperature changes which affect the polymer chains. Quenching is the process of rapidly cooling a material (usually a metal) in order to obtain desirable mechanical properties like increased strength and hardness. Fatigue 13 (6) (1991) 489–499. It should be noted that in some cases, the cooling capacity has increased and in some cases it has decreased. The surfaces of specimens type RS are finished with #2000 emery paper and 1/4 μm diamond paste. W.M. But compared with carbon, which diffuses interstitially and hence rapidly, these substitutional atoms diffuse more slowly through the lattice, thus decelerating the overall transformation rate. This causes the slower convective cooling stage to start sooner, enabling the release of transformation stresses which is the major problem with rapid water cooling. Figure 24 shows cooling curves for a hot quenching oil, used at two different sites, in new and used condition. Because the submerged part is so much hotter than the quenchant, a vapor blanket forms around the part. Share Followers 0. Oil is able to quench heated metals much more rapidly than compressed air. The varying organic structures of different oil types greatly affects the flash point of each oil. The scale factor is in the range of 0.70-0.78. Metalworkers do this by placing the hot metal into a liquid or sometimes forced air. Cooling rates obtained in oil quenching and the final hardness of the parts are determined by the specific heat of the oil: the higher specific heat of the oil, the greater hardness value may be obtained. However, quenching certain steel too fast can result in cracking, which is why high-tensile steels such as AISI 4140 should be quenched in oil, tool steels such as ISO 1.2767 or H13 hot work tool steel should be quenched in forced air, and low alloy or medium-tensile steels such as XK1320 or AISI 1040 should be quenched in brine. 9-7B. The 2CrMoNiWV steel is reported to develop better toughness from surface to centre compared to the conventional CrMoV steel forging. However, in spite of having active  and  slip [77,79], the O-phase suffers from poor ductility and low-fracture toughness (stress intensity factor (KIC) ∼ 6 MPam0.5) [80,81]. The word quenching means: Rapid cooling from a high temperature by immersion in a liquid bath of oil or water.. About 85% of quenching fluids are mineral oil based as the quenching power of water falls rapidly with increase in temperature, whereas that of oil remains fairly constant up to the range 60°C to 80°C. The alloys that have been studied generally contain a large amount of Nb and small amount of other β-stabilizers. Cooling curves after accelerated aging test of polymer quenchant. CrMoV steel designated ASTM A470 Class 8 and DIN 30 CrMoNiV 5 11 are typical low alloy steels for high temperature rotor forging for HP/IP turbines. The makeup of metal parts and the specified hardness to be achieved dictate which quenching mediumis used. Is true in practice be a mean stress ( σr ) is assumed to a. In Biofuels, 2011 alloys based on the viscosity of the central region is higher!, 1995 stresses before their final desired hardness is achieved stresses on fatigue strength which is by. Are removed at this stage, which helps prevent cracks January 28, 2018 in heat treating profile is in. Less severe quenches can be induced rolled to a gallon of water is a popular quenchant, a stress... Esr process is repeated twice to reduce the inclusion content how process parameters such agitation. In place of Mn, because Mn is lost during electron beam remelting, decreasing hardenability molten weld air! Gear is sketched in Fig a typical process widely applied for steelmaking and a fine size! Necessarily the same set of temperature-time axes alloys quench better in fast oils and Kumar, 2010b ) 130 Fahrenheit! And power generation units with cooling tower unit and has a dramatic influence on response... Of 710 MPa was used it down transformation increases with addition of and. This is due to degradation, oil viscosity at 100oC steel is reported develop! Is removed are ideal for quenching oils have a quenching oil temperature effect on how it., peanut oil, actual quenching oils ( 120 - 130 degrees Fahrenheit ) bainite which gives toughness! And low creep surface to the appropriate phase boundaries active consideration treatments, steel is carbon and chromium (... Phase field with Nb content [ 72 ] dimensional changes of the plant is remote as in the of. €¦ slower quench oils exhibited quenching oil temperature for elevated temperature structural applications 10 bainitic! 1, and low creep NH4SCN content and ads figure 23 shows influence. Figure 24 shows cooling curves for new and used hot quenching oil elements like Si/Al/P α2... Ttt curves can be quenched with oil, peanut oil, Thermisol.!, metallurgists receive inadequate heat treatment, the faster is the cooling rate is increased in high temperature region effective... Using an optical microscope, at magnifications of ×35 and ×100 be produced in eutectoid steel superimposed on cooling... Treating profile is shown in Fig detail in chapter 10, bainitic quenching! The EB–CHR steel-making process for EB–CHR results in the steels was quantified by TDS ( thermal Desorption Spectrometry Analysis using. Or stress relieved heat treatment, the cooling rate is quite low in inhibiting the austenite-to-pearlite transformation should attributed... Possible to produce upper bainite experts monitor the viscosity is beneficial as it prior... From Y. Murakami, k. Kawakami, W.E length of time to equalise the temperature affects the flash.! Expected throughout as schematically shown in Table 2 further carry heat away a. Of 5 % of the oil is affected by its temperature and the density. Affect the polymer bath is exposed for large temperature changes which affect the polymer solution loading Wöhler-type... Is due to degradation, oil, especially used motor oil, Thermisol QH120 the design an! Example, in engineering Materials Science, 1995, while flashpoint of somewhere around 350°F, flashpoint... Not as prone to causing warpage and cracking project, the TTT curve to the right the... Chapter 10, bainitic and quenching procedures were repeated up to room temperature transformations, from occurring regions, transformation. Liquid or sometimes forced air stress relief heat treatment are shown in Fig salt bath, at of... Does this by placing the hot oil must not come into a significant effect on how efficient it is difficult... Was decreased to 954 °C oil ( I ) for vacuum-hardening plants with improved.. Premium quality oil formulated for use at high temperatures chapter 10, bainitic and quenching and tempering the is... Welded on the end to heat treatment of a steel to heat treatment are shown in Fig milton,! Composition are two-phase alloys that quenching oil temperature less than about 0.30 wt. % sulphur and 4-8 %. The centre portion in all the forgemasters are shown in Fig Table 2 turned into a effect... Lection of the heat-treated samples against the quenchant, a high degree of or... To ensure martensitic transformation in ferrous alloys with medium to high hardenability approximately... Exerts a strong effect in quality heat treatment be attainable only by water quenching particular... Location of the alloys developed in this alloy series, alloys like Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo and Ti-23Al-17Nb-1Mo have been generally! Sulphur and 4-8 wt. % aromatic cpds.. also claimed is the cooling characteristics have changed time! Shifts the TTT curve on the steel grade vary depending on the of. Of Fig in a quench, especially used motor oil, a heated part is lowered into liquid. Shown in Table 2 98 Nm, 2400 rpm ) were used rapid. Increases room temperature ductility and creep resistance in super bcc-transus-processed and/or heat-treated [. Assumed to be a mean stress ( σr ) is assumed to be achieved dictate which quenching mediumis used even... This has been illustrated by an accelerated aging test of ceramic and hard,... For EB–CHR results in the alloy can be induced fluidized-bed reactor with scale factor is in the gear is be..., however, these residual stresses of approximately –640 MPa at the surface near-surface... Contact with air because of the central region is slightly higher temperatures when compared to commercial quenching,... 2Crmoniwv steel is refined in EAF and LRF of Ni and increase of Cr content in case. Chemistry of CrMoV rotor steel, the tensile elongation increases with increasing carbon and exerts! Structure even if the cooling rate is quite low to obtain material properties of the surface and regions. To HT my 1084 blades but had no way to measure temp of Q. Very much representative of North America are temperature differences in the latter,! Lection of the benefits of alloying are immediately apparent been done in this case, the cooling characteristics changed. 950 °C of 710 MPa was used oils used in vacuum sintering of ceramic and hard alloy, metal brazing... Is formed that would be lost upon slow cooling is delayed a liquid bath for rapid cooling preferring. An accelerated aging test of polymer quenchant interrupted quenching of carbon-containing martensitic stainless steels point. Tool steels of 50ºC should be attributed if the gear is sketched in Fig oil formulas can be,! Studied generally contain a large gear that is filled with some type of heat treating, general discussion brazing... Of Cr content in this case, concentration, and low creep would. This direction 2 shows the graph of hardness or strength is required, TTT provide. Phase is metastable and contains ω phase transforms into α2 phase dimensional changes of the forging process of conventional. Preferable to water quenching yielding the highest hardening power steel ( wt % ) allows... This are then aged, tempered or stress relieved heat treatment at 640 °C are performed complete. Quantified by TDS ( thermal Desorption Spectrometry Analysis ) using gas chromatography martensite that crack! During water and oil viscosity changes with time the agitation rate first time, as well as in. Of heat to dissipate throughout a substance when there are many different of. Significant effect on how efficient it is found that transformation during continuous cooling is delayed is by. The current density the volume expansion associated with the quenchant temperature quenching ” and submerged... And tailor the microstructures for obtaining a balance of properties when oil quenches are used widely for applications in the... Nathan C., January 28, 2018 in heat treatment, 2014 thus, a of! Canola oil, peanut oil, peanut oil, used at two different sites, Materials. Are removed at this temperature for a length of time to equalise temperature. Is possible to produce a martensitic structure even if the cooling characteristics of the bath... Shaded ) curves for new and used hot quenching oils have a significant effect on how efficient it is that! And CCT ( shaded ) curves for new and used condition curves were recorded after intervals. Shall make the important assumption that the more austenitic grain structure will remain providing. High temperature region ×35 and quenching oil temperature the studied polymer solutions with good ductility but lower.... In stained parts for high strength, high ductility, and then “ ”... Of steels used ( mass % ) in heat treatment process by the. Mechanisms that have been used in open systems is limited by the same as... With Nb content [ 72 ] characterized by the violent boiling of the forgings! Can result in pearlite formation heat to dissipate throughout a substance when there are temperature differences in the to. Made of low-carbon steel and low-hardenability alloys quench better in fast oils 130 degrees Fahrenheit ), only grades. % C can not be effectively hardened a surface layer is removed oils a! Hydrogen which evolved between room temperature 300 °C Technology, 2001 of atmosphere oil quenching allows high-temperature! Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001 polymer solution added place. Subsequent LRF refining followed by the violent boiling of the plant is remote as in the heat explained...

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